储能科学与技术

• 特约文章 • 上一篇    

商业超级电容器在不同工作模式下的稳定性

郑富慧,李艳霞,王旭升,刘大鹏   

  1. 同济大学材料科学与工程学院,上海 嘉定 201804
  • 收稿日期:2017-06-30 修回日期:2017-07-09 出版日期:2017-07-10 发布日期:2017-07-10
  • 通讯作者: 李艳霞,副教授,主要从事储能材料与器件性能研究,E-mail:liyanxia@tongji.edu.cn。
  • 作者简介:郑富慧(1991—),女,硕士研究生,研究方向为超级电容器的老化机理,E-mail:1151481@tongji.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中央高校基本科研业务费项目(0800219314)。

Stability of commercial supercapacitors aged at different operating modes

ZHENG Fuhui, LI Yanxia, WANG Xusheng, LIU Dapeng   

  1. School of Materials Science & Engineering, Tongji University, Jiading 201804, Shanghai, China
  • Received:2017-06-30 Revised:2017-07-09 Online:2017-07-10 Published:2017-07-10

摘要: 在额定电压(2.7 V)和过电压(3.0 V)下分别采用恒流循环、恒压充电、恒流与恒压交替模式对商用超级电容器进行老化,并且对老化后的器件进行容量、阻抗等电化学性能的比较。结果表明:(i)持续恒压模式下器件的净放电容量大于额定电容量10 F,净放电能量大于25 mWh,均远超过其他两种工作模式;(ii)恒流模式下的器件电容量小于10 F,但是其电阻增大幅度和容量衰减幅度均最小,这表明恒流性能最差但可以延长使用寿命且受高电压损伤相对较小;(iii)恒流与恒压交替模式下工作的器件等效内阻达37.6 mΩ(初始最大值为30 mΩ),同时高于其他两种模式,可见双模对电容器的性能伤害最大,且受电压影响最大。建议合理选择工作模式,从而降低储能成本。

关键词: 超级电容器, 恒流循环, 恒压充电, 双模, 老化

Abstract: The constant current charge/discharge mode, constant voltage charge mode and constant current cycling and floating mixed mode were applied to the ageing of commercial supercapacitors at both the nominal voltage of 2.7 V and overvoltage 3.0 V, respectively, followed by the comparison of the performance of the supercapacitors, including capacitance, impedance, etc. The results show that: (i) The devices aged at constant voltage mode have the highest net discharge capacity higher than the nominal capacity of 10 F and have the highest net discharge energy more than 25 mWh. The devices aged at constant voltage have the biggest power capacitance and energy storage capacity. (ii) The devices under constant current mode show the lowest capacitance of less than 10 F, but the variation of resistance and capacity are the smallest, which reveals that the devices have a longer spanlife though the devices show the worst performance. (iii)The equivalent resistance of the devices under the constant current cycling and floating mixed mode is up to 37.6 mΩ (the maximum of initial value is 30 mΩ), which is higher than the devices operated at the other two modes. The results indicate that the constant current cycling and floating mixed mode seriously damaged the devices, and show the greatest effect of various voltage on the resistance of the devices. This study provides a guideline that the choice of an appropriate operating mode will significantly decrease the cost of energy storage.

Key words: supercapacitor, constant current, constant voltage, mixed mode, ageing