储能科学与技术

• 研究开发 • 上一篇    下一篇

碳气凝胶的制备及其在电化学超级电容器上的应用

吴学玲1,张志华1,刘  冬1,关大勇1,刘念平1,叶玉凤2,沈  军1   

  1. 1同济大学,上海市特殊人工微结构材料与技术重点实验室,上海 200092;
    2上海理工大学光电信息与计算机工程学院,上海 200092
  • 收稿日期:2016-07-06 修回日期:2016-07-18 出版日期:2016-11-01 发布日期:2016-11-01
  • 通讯作者: 张志华,副教授,从事纳米材料与技术的研究,E-mail:zzhtj@tongji.edu.cn;沈军,教授,从事溶胶-凝胶法制备纳米非晶多孔固态材料和薄膜材料的研究,E-mail:shenjun67@tongji.edu.cn。
  • 作者简介:吴学玲(1992—),女,硕士研究生,从事有机气凝胶和碳气凝胶材料的制备及性能研究,E-mail:1433547@tongji.edu.cn;
  • 基金资助:
    上海航天科技创新基金(SAST201469、SAST201272),国家自然科学基金(51072137)项目。

Preparation of carbon aerogels and its application in electrochemical supercapacitors

WU Xueling1, ZHANG Zhihua1, LIU Dong1, GUAN Dayong1, LIU Nianping1, YE Yufeng2, SHEN Jun1   

  1. 1Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology, Tongji University,
    Shanghai 200092, China; 2University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200092, China
  • Received:2016-07-06 Revised:2016-07-18 Online:2016-11-01 Published:2016-11-01

摘要: 本文通过优化碳气凝胶前驱体的配比以及采用3种活化工艺,包括CO2物理活化、KOH化学湿法活化以及CO2、KOH两步活化工艺,研究了制备高比表面积碳气凝胶的工艺参数,并对碳气凝胶的微观结构和相应的电化学特性进行了表征和分析。结果表明,间苯二酚与碳酸钠的摩尔比(R/C)为1500时,获得的碳气凝胶比表面积达到820 m2/g,比电容量为151 F/g;经物理活化、化学湿法活化以及两步活化工艺后获得的活化碳气凝胶的比表面积分别为1589 m2/g、1480 m2/g、2119 m2/g,比电容量分别为181 F/g、229 F/g、259 F/g。相比之下两步活化法不但提升了碳气凝胶的比表面积,而且制备的碳气凝胶材料表现出更良好的电化学性能。

关键词: 碳气凝胶, 电化学超级电容器, 活化工艺, 比表面积

Abstract: The carbon aerogels are prepared by using resorcinol and formaldehyde as precursor, Na2CO3 as catalyst and water as solvent with sol-gel technology, following drying and carbonization at high temperature. The optimized parameters of the preparation of high specific surface area carbon aerogels in this paper have been investigated by adjusting the ratios of precursors and applying three activated processes: carbon dioxide physical activation process, potassium hydroxide wet chemical activation process, and two steps activation process of carbon dioxide and potassium hydroxide for the application of carbon aerogels in supercapacitors. Moreover the microstructure of carbon aerogels and their corresponding electrochemical properties have been characterized and analyzed. The results indicated that the original specific surface area and specific capacitance of the unactivated carbon aerogel are 820 m2/g and 151 F/g respectively as the molar ratio of resorcinol and sodium carbonate (R/C) is 1500. After the carbon dioxide physical activation process, potassium hydroxide wet chemical activation process, and two steps activation process respectively, their specific surface areas increased to 1589 m2/g, 1480 m2/g and 2119 m2/g and the specific capacitances of the samples reached to 181 F/g, 229 F/g and 259 F/g. By contrast, the two-step activation not only enhance the specific surface area, but also form a hierarchically porous structures of the carbon aerogels, which is advantageous to be applied in the supercapacitors.

Key words: carbon aerogels, electrochemical supercapacitors, activated process, specific surface area